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Heart disease Symptoms Causes, Preventive Measures I Heart Attack


Introduction To Heart Attack Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)

  1. Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is undoubted, one of the most vexing and crucial medical problem being faced by the civilized world today. It does not respect class, race or locality. IHD is the major cause of illness and disability and is the leading cause of death in the USA, the most advanced country in the world. In Pakistan, it comprises 23% of all cardiac cases admitted in hospitals and out of this 28 % are under age of 45 years.
  1. IHD is a major health issue in Pakistan, placing the significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality in population and terms of cost on the individual and public health system. According to most careful estimates based on sound scientific studies, nearly one hundred thousands individuals suffered Heart Attack in the calendar year 2011.
  1. The main cause of IHD is the narrowing of blood vessels known as Atherosclerosis that upset the critical balance between oxygen supply and demand thus precipitating the Heart Attack. 

Risk Factors

  1. Major risk factors for Atherosclerotic IHD are as follow:
heart disease Heart Attack And its Prevention
Heart Attack And its Prevention



  1. Nothing has played havoc with the human being in the history like IHD, as it results from the detrimental interaction between human genetics, environment, and lifestyle. It is one of the most important preventable diseases. Thus by controlling the risk factors, the disease can be prevented. Although one lack the power to change some risk factors such as family history, sex or age there are some key heart disease prevention steps one can take. These are appended below;

(a) Don’t smoke or use tobacco – Nicotine Smoking or using tobacco is one of the most significant risk factors for developing heart disease. Chemicals in tobacco can damage heart and blood vessels, leading to narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) Thus by smoking cessation one can reduce the risk of heart Attack/ diseases.

(b) Eat a heart-healthy diet – Eating plan low in fats, cholesterol, and salt, rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products can help protect the heart. Beans, other low-fat sources of protein and certain types of fish also, can reduce the risk of heart disease. Limiting saturated and trans fats (Saturated fat intake of less than 7%) is important, Major sources of fats that all to be avoided or taken in low amount are: –

(i) Red meat

(ii) Dairy products (creams)

(iii) Coconut and palm oils

(iv) Deep-fried fast foods

(v) Bakery products Goals for this purpose are

(c) Cholesterol intake less than 200 mg/day is recommended which is

equal to one egg intake.

(d) Limit salt and sugar intake

Maintain a healthy weight

  1. BMI is one of the best ways to see that. BMI numbers 25 and higher are related with higher blood fats, higher blood pressure, an extended danger of heart disease and stroke. Waist circumference is additionally a valuable tool to quantify how much

abdominal fat one has:

(a) Men are considered overweight if their waist measurement is greater then 40 inches (101.6 cm).

(b) Women are overweight if their waist measurement is greater than 35 inches (88.9 cm).

(c) Even a small weight loss can be beneficial. Reducing weight by just 10 percent can decrease blood pressure, lower blood cholesterol level and reduce the risk of Diabetes Mellitus.

Anger stress

  1. Stress is although not included in risk factors for heart disease but indirectly it can precipitate Heart Attack by releasing certain chemicals that in turn cause narrowing that eventually results in a portion of the heart being suddenly deprived of its blood supply leading to the death of that area of heart tissue, resulting in a heart attack. Stress can be kept low by talking about once problems and feelings rather than keeping feelings hidden. Different ways are tried to reduce stress such as exercise, deep breathing etc.

Regular Exercise

  1. Getting some regular daily exercise can reduce the risk of fatal heart disease and if it is combined with some other activities such as maintaining a healthy weight, the payoff is even greater. At least 30 to 60 minutes of moderately intense physical activity 7 days of the week is required.

Health Screenings

  1. Armed Forces have an excellent way of regular screening in the form of Annual Medical Examination. By regular screening, one can get the idea of risks he is having and can take actions accordingly. This includes;

(a) Blood pressure. Regular blood pressure screening is important. Optimal blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg.

(b) Cholesterol levels. Total cholesterol should be 150 mg/dl.

(LDL cholesterol of < 100 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol > 40 mg/dl and Triglycerides < 150 mg/dl)

(c) Diabetes screening. Depending on risk factors such as being overweight or a family history of Diabetes Mellitus, first testing for diabetes sometime between ages 30 and 45 and then retesting every three to five years.

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